On the Judges of the Court of Geomancy

In the process of geomantic divination, one of the first things we do as geomancers is actually construct the whole chart from the first four Mothers that we derive by a random means.  Through this, we calculate the four Daughters, the four Nieces, and the four figures of the Court.  The Court, as my geomantically-inclined readers are already aware, is composed of the Right Witness, the Left Witness, the Judge, and the Sentence.  Throughout the history of geomancy, the Judge has nigh-universally been seen as the most important figure of the entire chart, and every interpretation must rely on the Judge in at least some way to understand what the chart proclaims for the query asked of it.  However, the Judge isn’t just some random figure; there are intricate mathematical relationships between the Judge and the rest of the chart, one of the effects of which is that the Judge must be an even figure.  However, the reason why this is on a higher, more philosophical level aren’t usually stated clearly.  Between a recent email about the Judges of geomancy and a discussion on the Facebook geomancy group, there’s a bit about the Judge that I feel might need a little unpacking from a higher, theoretical level to understand why it is what it is and how it relates to the process of interpreting the geomantic chart.

The email sent to me asked several questions, but they can be broken down and rephrased into the following.

  • Why are the Judges even?
  • What does it mean for a Judge to be an even figure?
  • Do the mathematical limitations of what can and can’t be a Judge make us lose out in geomantic divination?
  • Does the Judge miss anything as far as the whole answer to the query goes, and if so, where can we find it?

I answered the dude in the email, but I’d like to flesh out my answers a bit more fully here.

First, the Judge must be even due to the mathematics in the geomancy chart.  A paper by Marcia Ascher, “Malagasy Sikidy: A Case in Ethnomathematics” (Historia Mathematica 24, 1997, pp376—395) fully describes the reasoning as it is in Madgascar’s form of geomancy, but the exact same logic works in Western geomancy, as well.  For the mathematically disinclined among us, the idea is that the Judge is ultimately the sum of the four Mothers and four Daughters:

Judge = Right Witness + Left Witness
Judge = (First Niece + Second Niece) + (Third Niece + Fourth Niece)
Judge = ((First Mother + Second Mother) + (Third Mother + Fourth Mother)) + ((First Daughter + Second Daughter) + (Third Daughter + Fourth Daughter))

When we add two figures together in geomancy, we’re not really coming up with a numeric sum of points between the two added figures, but coming up with the parity (even or odd) of the number of points between them.  Further, recall that there must be an equal number of points in the four Mothers as there are in the four Daughters, because they’re all formed from different arrangements of the same points.  Because geomantic addition (a variant on the logical/mathematical function called the “exclusive or” or XOR function) only preserves parity, what the Mothers and Daughters add together to numerically doesn’t matter, because their parity will still match.  Thus, because the four Mothers are together summed to find the Right Witness and the four Daughters together to find the Left Witness, both the Right and Left Witnesses must share the same parity.  Two figures that are both odd or both even, i.e. share the same parity, will add together to form an even figure.  Thus, because both Witnesses share the same parity, the Judge must therefore be an even figure.  It can be shown, further, that the Judge is the only figure produced in the process of geomantic divination that this is necessarily true; any other figure in the chart may be odd or even, but only the Judge must be even.  Because of this, we use this mathematic property to help us figure out whether a chart is mathematically valid and well-constructed; if we find that the Judge is an odd figure, then there’s something not right in how the chart is calculated, and we need to find out where the error lies so we can correct it before we continue with interpreting the chart.

Because the Judge must be even, this narrows down the number of figures that can occur in this position from sixteen down to eight: Populus, Via, Carcer, Coniunctio, Fortuna Maior, Fortuna Minor, Aquisitio, and Amissio.  It is for this reason that I call these figures “objective”, and the odd figures (Puer, Puella, Laetitia, Tristitia, Albus, Rubeus, Cauda Draconis, and Caput Draconis) “subjective”; this is a distinction I don’t think exists extant in the literature outside my own writings (which also includes contributions to the articles on geomancy on Wikipedia).  I call the even figures “objective” because they are the only ones that can be Judges; just as in real life, where the judge presiding over a court case must objectively take into account evidence to issue a judgment and sentence, the Judge in a geomantic chart must likewise reflect the nature of the situation and answer the query in an impartial (a Latin word literally meaning “not biased” or “not odd”), fair, balanced, and objective way.  It’s not that these figures are Judges because they inherently possess an astrological or magical quality called objectivity, but I call them objective because they’re mathematically able to be Judges.

What does it actually mean in real-world terms, then, for these Judge-eligible figures to be “objective”?  It means that they represent certain states of the cosmos that can be seen from both sides of a situation, something that plays out externally, concretely, and factually in a way that can be colored, but not tampered, by emotional, mental, or otherwise subjective states of perception that only apply in a one-sided way (note the “both sides” and “one-sided” phrasing here and how it applies to even versus odd).  This can be seen by how the different inverse pairs of figures play out in their significations, apart and away from any correspondence to sign or planet or element:

  • Aquisitio and Amissio relate to notions of obtaining, losing, acquiring, or missing some object.  You can dress it up however you want or arrive at it by different means (inventing, destroying, getting something on your own, getting someone to get rid of something for you, etc.), but at the end of the day, you either have something or you don’t.
  • Carcer and Coniunctio relate to notions of being isolated, conjoined, restricted, freed, cut off, or brought into some process.  You either have freedom and choices, or you don’t.
  • Fortuna Maior and Fortuna Minor relate to notions of independence or dependence.  You either can do something on your own, or you can’t; you either need outside help or resources not normally available to you, or you don’t.
  • Populus and Via relate to notions of passivity, activity, inertia, liveliness, stagnation, passion, multitude, or solitude.  There is either nothing going on, or there is something going on; things either change or they don’t.

If it sounds like a very black-and-white, cut-and-clear, binary way to view the universe, it’s because it is.  While I’m all about seeing the fine gradations of how things play out on large scales, understand that the cosmos provides a truly limitless spectrum of experiences, and often look for third, fourth, and other choices when presented with a dilemma, it doesn’t change the fact that the cosmos itself doesn’t always operate in a fuzzy, shade-of-grey manner; after all, you can’t have something halfway, either you have it or you don’t, just like how a light switch cannot be both “off” or “on” or halfway between them.  There is no third option, no halfway point, no spectrum involved in these dichotomies.  Geomancy itself is based upon binary mathematics, the numerical science of what is and what is not, what is true and what is false, what is odd and what is even, without allowing for anything in the middle of two choices.  However, when you have a whole situation and cosmos presented before you, we start to find shades of grey developing when we have a number of such binary choices or qualities in the same place, conflicting and meeting with each other; those subjective states are emergent properties of an otherwise objective system, where we have a multitude of reactions based on a single action.

What are those reactions, those shades of grey, those subjective states?  That’s where the odd figures come into play:

  • Puer and Puella reflect the old-school gender dichotomy of male and female, emitting or receptive, extroverted or introverted, visiting or hosting.
  • Laetitia and Tristitia reflect the two emotional states of joy or sorrow, jubilation or grief, uplifting or depression, optimistic or apprehensive.
  • Albus and Rubeus reflect the two states of the mind which can be calm or turbulent, reflective or chaotic, wise or foolish, impotent or violent.
  • Caput Draconis and Cauda Draconis reflect the two perspectives to a situation of beginning or ending, constructive or destructive, fortunate or unfortunate, opening or closing.

Note that these are all things that cannot really be shared, and are unique to each and every person, each and every “side” in a situation.  One person’s trash is another person’s treasure, after all; what I perceive as good, you might perceive as bad, and what I may be fearful of, you may be eagerly anticipating with relish.  Plus, these figures are much more liable to be considered ends of a spectrum rather than a strict dichotomy; ask any genderfluid person how male or female they feel on a given day, if either at all, and consider how truly complex the mind is in a troubling situation where some parts of it might be chaotic and other parts tranquil or focused, and how much each set of parts might be of either state.  Moreover, even within a single person, some of these internal subjective states can change from moment to moment, but it doesn’t change necessarily what actually happens externally to them unless they make an external action.  For instance, upon realizing that I’ve completed a long-running task, I might go through a series of emotions about it ranging from wistful nostalgia to exuberant gratitude that it’s over to regret that I could have done more while I was in the process of it; none of these actually change the fact that the task is complete, hence the subjective/objective distinction.  Further, while we might be able to witness these states of gender, emotion, mind, or perspective in another person, they are nothing actually realized in the real world without a concrete action being taken.

Because of all this, when the dude who emailed me asked whether it’s a loss for us as geomancers that the Judge is limited to one of only eight figures from the total of sixteen, I emphatically replied to the contrary: that the Judge must be even is simply part of how geomancy works, which cannot be compared as it is to other forms of divination like Tarot or runes where each symbol is obtained independently of the others, and that the Judge’s even parity gives us both a practical guide to checking the chart in addition to an insight into what the figures themselves are.  If this limits us at all, it does so that we cannot make a faulty, subjective, misguided judgment that would cause more harm than good by relying overmuch on subjective, internal feelings that do not have a concrete place to play in the actual world; in such a case, it’s not a limitation of us being unfairly cut off from a world of possibilities that we should have a right to explore, but a limitation protecting us from a world where things make even less sense than they already do, and thus where we have no business being.  Remember that we come to geomancy (and divination generally) for advice, guidance, and answers; it would do us no good to simply validate our feelings or be told that we should feel some other type of way when what we need is concrete information about what happens and what to do about it.

Now that we understand the full import of why the Judges must be even from both a mathematical and philosophical standpoint, let’s move on to that final question: does the Judge lack anything with respect to the answer for the chart?  I would say that no, it doesn’t, because the Judge is the full, whole, and complete distillation of the entire geomantic chart into a single figure, and as such represents the entire answer by itself.  This is the reason why it is the single most important figure in the chart, because it encapsulates the entire thing from start to end, and as I’ve suggested before, in a well-constructed reading, the Judge will always answer the query as best as one of those eight even figures can.  The thing is, however, that situations and queries presented to geomancy can often be complex, and the Judge being just one figure still must answer in a way that a single figure can, which is necessarily high-level and possibly vague.  It’s not that the Judge “omits” anything, but that some of the finer details that play into the high-level answer cannot be answered with a single figure alone.  Thus, we have the rest of the figures in the chart and all the other techniques available to us: the Witnesses, Via Puncti, perfection, company, elemental analyses, etc.  If the Judge, even at its high-level station, can answer the query on its own, great!  If not, then the Judge’s word sets the context and frames the information that is delivered to us by the rest of the chart and the rest of the art of geomancy.  In some ways, this is the opposite to the methods of judgment used in other divination systems, such as Tarot or runes, where you’re given a bunch of details that together must build up to a final judgment, but in geomancy, the judgment is given to you right off the bat via the Judge, and it’s up to the geomancer to dig deeper according to their level of ability, curiosity, and need for such details.

This all leads to something that was asked about on the Facebook geomantic group.  As some of my readers may recall, Dr Al Cummins recently hosted his set of geomancy classes, which were a resounding success (and he looks forward to having more in the future).  Someone in the Facebook group was in them, and noted something that Dr Al said about a chart “avowing or disavowing” the query, but wasn’t clear on what Dr Al meant by that, and how it relates to notions of perfection, aspect, and so forth.  I chimed in with my understanding of what Dr Al meant, which he validated in the same thread.  The notion of avowing or disavowing is a little-known distinction of some Judges taken from some Renaissance geomancers, where the Judge either clearly answers the query as phrased or not.  In other words, a Judge avows or owns the query if the nature and significations of the Judge clearly and explicitly relates to the nature of the query to give a straightfoward answer all on its own; a Judge disavows or disowns the query if its nature and significations have no apparent relation to what it asked.  Thus, an avowing Judge resonates with what’s being asked, and a disavowing Judge does not.  If the Judge avows the query, then little else needs to be said beyond the significations of the Judge itself in order to give an answer to the querent, though it might be minimal and further exploration can be useful to be more detailed and exact with the answer; if the Judge disavows the query, then further inspection, interpretation, or investigation are needed to figure out why the Judge is what is is, why it says what it says, and how it relates to the query at hand.

Consider a case where the querent asks “will I get my lost wallet back?”.  This query falls under the general field of questions of dealing with possession.  The two figures that avow this type of query are, naturally, Aquisitio (will possess) and Amissio (will not possess).  If we get Amissio as the Judge for such a query, then we can say that the Judge avows the query, the answer is “no, you will not get your lost wallet back”, and we’re technically done at that point; investigating the rest of the chart may tell us where it is, what happened to it, what can be done to recoup any losses, who might have found it if anyone, and so forth, but none of that is technically needed to give the core answer of “no”.  However, if we get another figure like Coniunctio as the Judge for such a query, which relates more to connections rather than possessions, then we’d say that the Judge disavows the query because there is no natural relationship between the semantic field of the Judge and that of the query; Coniunctio does not clearly say “yes” or “no” to such a query.  In this case, we’d have to start looking deeper into the chart to figure out what Coniunctio actually means: does it mean that you’ll have to be in the market to get a new one because the old one was lost, or that you’ll have to meet with someone to get it back, or that you losing it was part of a toll or sacrifice you had to make to get further along, or that you’ll find it again through happenstance and the goodwill of spirits?  It’s unclear from the Judge itself; though the Judge still gives an answer to the query, it’s too high-level and encapsulates too many things to give a clear “yes” or “no” answer.

Going back to the binary dichotomy of the objective figures, if you consider the semantic field of a query that has one of two end results (e.g. “I will get my wallet back” or “I will not get my wallet back”), then although the end result must be one of two choices, the power of geomancy is that it plays out the whole scheme of the cosmos before us in all its shades and variations before it gets to one result or the other.  Judges that avow the query simply reflect the dichotomy of a situation, no ifs, ands, or buts allowed.  Judges that disavow the query give a “shade of grey” answer that must be analyzed until it can be judged on what side of the threshold it actually falls on, like finding out whether a given electrical current will actually trip a circuit breaker only by playing things out and tracing out the circuit and voltage; at the end, the breaker will be tripped or it won’t, but it remains to be seen whether it will or not until it actually happens.  That investigation is what a disavowing Judge mandates.

I should mention, however, that a disavowing Judge doesn’t mean that the Judge doesn’t answer the query.  After all, the Judge is still the encapsulation of the whole situation, and still contains the answer as much as one that avows the query; an insightful and experienced geomancer can probably get a good feel for what the Judge says regardless of whether it avows or disavows the query.  The distinction here is that an avowing Judge readily answers the query asked of the chart since it naturally falls into the binary dichotomy of the query, and a disavowing Judge is focused elsewhere in the situation than that is asked, but still contains the answer within itself.  It might be theorized that disavowing Judges, because they demand a deeper investigation into the chart, indicate that the situation is deeper than what is asked and that there’s more behind the scenes of the querent’s life than what they say, but that’d be a bold claim even coming from me.  More realistically and conventionally, it’s better to say that a disavowing Judge will still answer the query, but it’s focused on an answer that’s not “yes” or “no”, indicating that there’s more to say than just that.


Arranging the Planets as the Geomantic Figures

A few weeks ago, the good Dr Al Cummins and I were talking about geomantic magic.  It’s a sorely understood and understudied aspect of the whole art of geomancy, and though we know geomantic sigils exist, they’re never really used much besides in addition to the usual planetary or talismanic methods of Western magic.  While I’ve been focusing much on the techniques of divination, exploring the use of geomancy and geomantic figures in magical workings is something of a long-term, slow-burn, back-burner thing for me.  Al, on the other hand, has been jumping headlong into experimenting with using geomancy magically (geomagy?), which fascinates me, and which gives us nigh-endless stuff to conjecture and experiment with.  After all, there’s technically nothing stopping us from seeing the geomantic figures as “units” in and of themselves, not just as extensions of planets projected downward or as combinations of elements projected upwards, so seeing how we could incorporate geomancy into a more fuller body of magic in its own right is something we’re both excited to do.

One of these talks involved my use of the geomantic gestures (mudras, or as I prefer to call them, “seals”).  I brought up one such example of using a geomantic seal from a few years ago: I was at the tattoo parlor with a magic-sensitive friend of mine in the winter, and it had just started to snow.  I had to run across the street to get cash, and I decided that it wasn’t that cold (or that I could bear the weather better) to put on my coat.  I was, as it turns out, incorrect, and by the time I got back, I was rather chilled to the bone.  So, in an attempt to kickstart the process of warming back up, I threw the seal for Laetitia and intoned my mathetic word for Fire (ΧΙΑΩΧ). My sensitive friend immediately turned and picked up on what I was doing without knowing how.  I hadn’t really tried that before, but since I associate Laetitia with being pure fire (according to the elemental rulers/subrulers of the figures), I decided to tap into the element of Fire to warm myself up.  Since that point, I use the seals for Laetitia, Rubeus, Albus, and Tristitia as mudras for the elements of Fire, Air, Water, and Earth, respectively, like in my augmentation of the Calling the Sevenths ritual (e.g. in my Q.D.Sh. Ritual to precede other workings or as general energetic/spiritual maintenance).

Talking with Al about this, I came to the realization that I instinctively used the figures to access the elements; in other words, although we consider the figures being “constructed” out of the presence or absence of the elements, from a practical standpoint, it’s the opposite way around, where I use the figures as bases from which I reach the power of the elements.  That was interesting on its own, and something for another post and stream of thought, but Al also pointed out something cute: I use the figures of seven points as my seals for the elements.  This is mostly just coincidence, or rather a result of using the figures with one active point for representing one of the four elements in a pure expression, but it did trigger a conversation where we talked about arranging the seven planets among the points of the geomantic figures.  For instance, having a set of seven planetary talismans, I can use each individually on their own for a single planet, or I can arrange them on an altar for a combined effect.  If the seven-pointed figures can be used for the four elements, then it’d be possible to have elemental arrangements of the planets for use in blending planetary and elemental magic.

So, that got me thinking: if we were to see the geomantic figures not composed of the presence or absence of elements, but as compositions of the planets where each planet is one of the points within a figure, how might that be accomplished?  Obviously, we’d use fiery planets for the points in a figure’s Fire row, airy planets for the Air row, etc., but that’s too broad and vague a direction to follow.  How could such a method be constructed?

I thought about it a bit, and I recalled how I associated the planets (and other cosmic forces) with the elements according to the Tetractys of my mathesis work:


Note how the seven planets occupy the bottom two rungs on the Tetractys.  On the bottom rung, we have Mars in the sphaira of Fire, Jupiter in Air, Venus in Water, and Saturn in Earth; these are the four essentially elemental (ouranic) planets.  The other three planets (the Sun, the Moon, and Mercury) are on the third rung, with the Sun in the sphaira of Sulfur, the Moon in the sphaira of Salt, and the planet Mercury in the sphaira of the alchemical agent of Mercury.  Although we lack one force (Spirit) for a full empyrean set of mathetic forces for a neat one-to-one association between the empyrean forces and the four elements, note how these three planets are linked to the sphairai of the elements: the Sun is connected to both Fire and Air, Mercury to both Air and Water, and the Moon to both Water and Earth.

Since we want to map the seven planets onto the points of the figures, let’s start with the easiest ones that give us a one-to-one ratio of planets to points: the odd seven-pointed figures Laetitia, Rubeus, Albus, and Tristitia.  Let us first establish that the four ouranic planets Mars, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn are the most elementally-representative of the seven planets, and thus must be present in every figure; said another way, these four planets are the ones that most manifest the elements themselves, and should be reflected in their mandatory presence in the figures that represent the different manifestations of the cosmos in terms of the sixteen geomantic figures.  The Sun, the Moon, and Mercury are the three empyrean planets, and may or may not be present so as to mitigate the other elements accordingly.  A row with only one point must therefore have only one planet in that row, and should be the ouranic planet to fully realize that element’s presence and power; a row with two points will have the ouranic planet of that row’s element as well as one of the empyrean planets, where the empyrean planet mitigates the pure elemental expression of the ouranic planet through its more unmanifest, luminary presence.  While the ouranic planets will always appear in the row of its associated element, the empyrean planets will move and shift in a harmonious way wherever needed; thus, since the Sun (as the planetary expression of Sulfur) “descends” into both Mars/Fire and Jupiter/Air, the Sun can appear in either the Fire or Air rows when needed.  Similarly, Mercury can appear in either the Air or Water rows, and the Moon in either the Water or Earth rows (but more on the exceptions to this below).

As an example, consider the figure Laetitia: a single point in the Fire row, and double points in the Air, Water, and Earth rows, as below:

First, we put in the ouranic planets by default in their respective elemental rows:

Note how Mars takes the single point in the Fire row, while Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn occupy only one of the points in the other rows; these three empty points will be filled by the three empyrean planets according to the most harmonious element.  The Moon can appear in either the Earth or Water rows, and Mercury can appear in either the Water or Air rows, but in the case of the figure Laetitia, the Sun can only appear in the Air row, since the Fire row has only one point and is already associated with Mars; thus, in Laetitia, the Sun goes to Air, Mercury to Water, and the Moon to Earth.

Following this rule, we get Rubeus with Jupiter occupying the sole Air point and the Sun moving to the Fire row as the second point, Albus with Venus in the sole Water point and Mercury moving to the Air row, and Tristitia with Saturn in the sole Earth point and the Moon moving to the Water row.

With those done, it would then be easy to see what Via would look like as a collection of planets: just the four ouranic planets Mars, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn in a straight vertical line, the four purely-elemental ouranic planets without any of the mitigating empyrean ones, since the empyrean planets don’t need to be present to mitigate any of the ouranic ones.

Leaving aside Populus for the moment, what about the five-pointed and six-pointed figures?  In the case of five-pointed figures (e.g. Puer), we have to leave out two of the empyrean planets, and only one in the case of the six-pointed figures (e.g. Fortuna Maior).  For these figures, we decided to break with the foregoing empyrean-to-element rule and institute two new ones for these figures.

For five-pointed figures, use Mercury as the sole empyrean planet for the row with two dots, regardless where it may appear:

For six-pointed figures, use the Sun and Moon as the empyrean planets for the two rows with two dots, regardless where they may appear, with the Sun on the upper double-pointed row and the Moon on the lower double-pointed row:

Note how these two rules give us four figures where the empyrean planets do not appear where we would otherwise have expected them:

  • Fortuna Maior (Sun in Water)
  • Fortuna Minor (Moon in Air)
  • Caput Draconis (Mercury in Fire)
  • Cauda Draconis (Mercury in Earth)

I figured that this departure from the original empyrean-to-elemental-row idea was useful here, since it allows us to emphasize the structure of the figures and respect the natural affinities of the empyrean planets to each other.  The Sun and Moon have always been considered a pair unto themselves as the two luminaries; without one, the other shouldn’t necessarily be present in such a planetary arrangement.  Thus, for the five-pointed figures that omit the Sun and Moon, we would then use only Mercury, as it’s the only empyrean planet available.  Likewise, if either the Sun or Moon is present, the other should also be present; for the six-pointed figures, this means that Mercury is the only empyrean planet omitted.  An alternative arrangement could be used where you keep following the prior rules, such that Fortuna Maior uses the Sun and Mercury, Fortuna Minor uses Mercury and the Moon, etc., but I rather like keeping the Sun and Moon both in or out together.  It suggests a certain…fixity, as it were, in the six-pointed figures and mutability in the five-pointed figures that fits well with their even/objective/external or odd/subjective/internal meanings.

For all the foregoing, I’m torn between seeing whether the order of planets within a row (if there are two) matters or not.  In one sense, it shouldn’t matter; I only assigned the ouranic planets to the right point and the empyreal planets to the left because of the right-to-left nature of geomancy, and coming from a set theory point of view, the order of things in a set doesn’t really matter since sets don’t have orders, just magnitude.  On the other hand, we typically consider the left-hand side of things to be weaker, more receptive, more distant, or more manifested from the right-hand stronger, emitting, near, or manifesting (due, of course, to handedness in humans with the usual connotations of “dexter” and “sinister”), but relying on that notion, I do feel comfortable putting the empyrean planets (if any) on the left-hand points of a figure, with the ouranic planets on the right-hand side, if not the middle.  It’s mostly a matter of arbitrary convention, but it does…I dunno, feel better that way.

So that takes care of the figures of four, five, six, and seven points.  We only have one figure left, the eight-pointed figure Populus.  As usual with this figure, things get weird.  We can’t simply slap the planets onto the points of Populus because we only have seven planets; we’d either need to bring in an extra force (Spirit? Fixed stars? the Earth?) which would necessitate an eighth force which simply isn’t available planetarily, or we’d have to duplicate one of the existing seven planets which isn’t a great idea (though, if that were to be the case, I’d probably volunteer Mercury for that).  However, consider what the figure of Populus represents: emptiness, inertia, void.  What if, instead of filling in the points of the figure Populus, we fill in the spaces left behind by those points?  After all, if Populus is empty of elements, then why bother trying to put planets where there’ll be nothing, anyway?  If it’s void, then put the planets in the voids.  I found it easiest to conceive of seven voids around and among the points of Populus in a hexagram pattern:

Rather than filling in the points of Populus, which would necessitate an eighth planet or the duplication of one of the seven planets, we can envision the seven planets being used to fill the gaps between the points of Populus; seen another way, the planets would be arranged in a harmonic way, and Populus would take “form”, so to speak, in the gaps between the planets themselves.  The above arrangement of suggested points to fill naturally suggests the planetary hexagram used elsewhere in Western magic (note that the greyed-out circles above and below aren’t actually “there” for anything, but represent the voids that truly represent Populus around which the planets are arranged):

Simple enough, but I would instead recommend a different arrangement of planets to represent Populus based on all the rules we have above.  Note how the center column has three “voids” to fill by planets, and there are four “voids” on either side of the figure proper.  Rather than using the standard planetary hexagram, I’d recommend putting the three empyrean planets in the middle, with the Sun on top, Mercury in the middle, and the Moon on the bottom; then, putting Mars and Jupiter on the upper two “voids” with Venus and Saturn on the bottom two “voids”:

Note the symmetry here of the planets in the voids of Populus.  Above Mercury are the three hot planets (the right-hand side of the Tetractys), and below are the three cold planets (the left-hand side of the Tetractys).  On the right side are Mars and Venus together, representing the masculine and feminine principles through Fire and Water; on the left, Jupiter and Saturn, representing the expansive and contracting principles through Air and Earth; above is the Sun, the purely hot unmanifest force among the planets; below is the Moon, the coldest unmanifest force but closest to manifestation and density; in the middle is Mercury, the mean between them all.  Around the planet Mercury in the middle can be formed three axes: the vertical axis for the luminaries, the Jupiter-Venus axis for the benefics, and the Saturn-Mars axis for the malefics.  Note how Mercury plays the role of mean as much as on the Tetractys as it does here, played out in two of the three axes (Sun-Moon on the third rung, and Venus-Jupiter by being the one of the third-rung “parents” of the two elemental sphairai on the fourth rung).  The Saturn-Mars axis represents a connection that isn’t explicitly present on the Tetractys, but just as the transformation between Air and Water (hot/moist to cold/moist) is mediated by Mercury, so too would Mercury have to mediate the transformation between Fire and Earth (hot/dry to cold/dry); this can be visualized by the Tetractys “looping back” onto itself, as if it were wrapped around a cylinder, where the sphairai of Mars/Fire and Saturn/Earth neighbored each other on opposite sides, linked together by an implicit “negative” Mercury.  Further, read counterclockwise, the hexagram here is also related to the notion of astrological sect: the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn belong to the diurnal sect, while the Moon, Venus, and Mars belong to the nocturnal sect; Saturn, though cold, is given to the diurnal sect of the Sun to mitigate its cold, and Mars, though hot, is given to the nocturnal sect of the Moon to mitigate its heat, with Mercury being adaptable, possesses no inherent sect of its own, but changes whether it rises before or after the Sun.

That done, I present the complete set of planetary arrangements for the sixteen geomantic figures, organized according to reverse binary order from Via down to Populus:

So, the real question then becomes, how might these be used?  It goes without saying that these can be used for scrying into, meditating upon, or generally pondering to more deeply explore the connections between the planets and the figures besides the mere correspondence of rulership.  Magically, you might consider creating and consecrating a set of seven planetary talismans.  Once made, they can be arranged into one of the sixteen geomantic figures according to the patterns above for specific workings; for instance, using the planetary arrangement of Acquisitio using the planetary talismans in a wealth working.  If you want to take the view that the figures are “constructed” from the planets much how we construct them from the elements, then this opens up new doors to, say, crafting invocations for the figures or combining the planets into an overall geomantic force.

However, there’s a snag we hit when we realize that most of the figures omit some of the planets; it’s only the case for five of the 16 figures that all seven planets are present, and of those five, one of them (Populus) is sufficiently weird to not fit any sort of pattern for the rest.  Thus, special handling would be needed for the leftover planetary talismans.  Consider:

  • The five-pointed figures omit the Sun and the Moon.  These are the two visible principles of activity/positivity and passivity/negativity, taking form in the luminaries of the day and night.  These could be set to the right and left, respectively, of the figure to confer the celestial blessing of light onto the figure and guide its power through and between the “posts” of the two luminaries.
  • The six-pointed figures omit the planet Mercury.  Magically, Mercury is the arbiter, messenger, and go-between of all things; though the planetary talisman of Mercury would not be needed for the six-pointed figures, his talisman should be set in a place of prominence at the top of the altar away from the figure-arrangement of the rest of the talismans to encourage and direct the flow of power as desired.
  • The only four-pointed figure, Via, omits all three of the empyrean planets.  As this figure is already about directed motion, we could arrange these three talismans around the four ouranic planetary talismans in the form of a triangle that contains Via, with the Sun beneath the figure to the right, the Moon beneath the figure to the left, and Mercury above the figure in the middle; alternatively, the figure could be transformed into an arrow, with the talisman of Mercury forming the “tip” and the Sun and Moon forming the “arms” of the arrowpoint, placed either on top of or beneath the figure of Via to direct the power either away or towards the magician.

The eight-pointed figure Populus, although containing all seven planets in its arrangement, does so in a “negative” way by having the planets fill the voids between the points proper.  Rather than using the planets directly, it’s the silent voids between them that should be the focus of the works using this arrangement.  As an example, if we would normally set candles on top of the planetary talismans for the other arrangements, here we would arrange the planetary talismans according to the arrangement for Populus, but set up the candles in the empty voids where the points of Populus would be rather than on top of the talismans themselves.

All told, this is definitely something I want to experiment with as I conduct my own experiments with geomantic magic.  Even if it’s strictly theoretical without any substantial ritual gains, it still affords some interesting insights that tie back into mathesis for me.  Though it probably doesn’t need to be said, I’ll say it here explicitly: this is all very theoretical and hypothetical, with (for now) everything here untested and nothing here used.  If you do choose to experiment with it, caveat magus, and YMMV.

A Doxology and Prayer

Blessed are you, our Lord, king of the cosmos, who has kept us alive, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season; blessed are you, who bestows good things upon the unworthy, and has bestowed upon me every goodness; blessed are you, who has made nothing lacking in his world, and created within it good creations and good trees for your children to enjoy!  Blessed are you, the father of all, whose counsel is done by his own powers, who wishes to be known and is known by his own people; blessed are you, who by the word have constituted all things that are, whom all nature was born as image, whom nature has not produced a like figure; blessed are you, who surpass every excellence, who are stronger than every power, who are mightier than all praises.  Blessed are you, now and forever, here and everywhere.  Glory to God in the highest, to whom all glory is properly due!

My honor and gratitude to my ancestors: those of my blood, bone, flesh, and kin; those of my traditions, lineage, practices, and spirituality; those of my labor, trade, profession, and craft; those of my culture whose names everyone knows; those those names we have forgotten but whose presence we still feel; those who have passed away in my lifetime, and those who have passed away well before my birth.  We walk upon the ground you once walked upon, we breathe now the air you once breathed, we drink the water you once drank; your blood flows in our veins, your breath fills our lungs, your words echo in our ears even now.  We live today because of you; were it not for you, none of us today could live.  As we tread upon your bones and stand on your shoulders, may you uplift us and guide us that we may ever reach higher honorably, and in doing so, raise you up nobly in the world after this.  May every ancestor of each and every one of us be honored, remembered, and praised forevermore, that your spirits may never truly depart from the memory of your children.

My honor and gratitude to my family, especially my mother and my father and my sister and my brother, who nurtured and nurture me, with whom I grew and grow up.  Through the mere circumstances of my birth, I have been blessed with parents, siblings, cousins, and others who have supported me, uplifted me, and established me in the world for my own success, which encourages the success of us all.  Through the happenstance of my mother’s bearing me into the world have I been fortunate to find love, camaraderie, education, nourishment, and prosperity which would have been impossible were it not for them, and through the guidance of all my family have I been shown the manifold and innumerable opportunities for me to explore of the world.  May I always do my family honor, even should we disagree on the insignificant things; may I always make my family prosperous, even should we falter in faith in each other; may I always support my family proudly, even should we drift apart across the seas and generations.

My honor and gratitude to my teachers, instructors, and mentors in all subjects, numeric or artistic, physical or philosophical, material or immaterial, mundane or spiritual; whether you taught me as a child or as an adult, you are my teachers all the same.  It is because of you I have a love of learning, and it is by you I have a rigor for research.  From your hands and mouths have wisdom, knowledge, and understanding been passed onto me according to your own, and by my own do I hope to do right by your memory and build upon it where possible and to correct it when necessary.  Though you might have become fallible through your humanity, may I never speak ill of you, for the gifts you have given me surpass any critique except that which makes them better, which you yourselves would have endeavored to do, just as you encourage me to do.

My honor and gratitude to my friends, who guided me when I needed it, who celebrated with me when we could, who struggled with me when we had to, who cried with me in our sorrow.  May we always support each other and keep far from deceit and misunderstanding, that no obstacle may be too huge for us to overcome.  May we continue to look after each other as we look after ourselves, in joy and in grief, in luxury and in poverty, in wisdom and in folly, for the blood of the covenant is thicker than the water of the womb, and no truer connection can be made than those made freely out of our own free will.  Distant though we might be in time and space, the memories and impacts we have made will last forever, and always will you be honored in my life.  Even through our difficulties and through our distance, may we always keep each other aloft in our hearts, minds, and worlds through our memories and our care for each other.

My honor and gratitude to my husband, a kindred soul with whom I have become united, married together before the presence and sight of the gods and men.  A happy and strange couple we make, but the binding force of our love for each other overcomes all differences, difficulties, and dearth that the world would see thrust upon us.  Just as you complement me, I complement you; we come from different worlds, sometimes truly so, and through our union do we each help the other in areas each of us alone would be left to despair.  Just as you support me, I support you; we have embarked into a new life together, and even though we have our own magna opera to achieve, we help each other do so as we continue to achieve our shared magnum opus.  Stand by me that I may always stand by you, you who are my love, you who are my lover, you who are my beloved.  I have never loved you more than I love you now; I love you far more than I did yesterday, and far less than I shall tomorrow.

My honor and gratitude to the innumerable spirits with whom I have worked, on whom I have called, and by whom have I prospered.  Whether a spirit of the four elements, the seven planets, the ten heavens, the 12 signs, the 16 figures, the 24 hours, the 28 mansions, the 360 degrees, or any of the infinite stars in the nighttime sky; whether a spirit of the dead, the living, or the unborn-undying; whether a spirit of humanity, a spirit of those who were once human, or a spirit who was never human at any time before; whether a spirit assigned to me by higher powers or a spirit come to me of their own volition; whether a spirit of the ouranic, chthonic, thalassic, or gaic realms; whether deity of any pantheon, angel of any choir, saint of any patronage, demon of any operation, or devil of any hell; whether immanent or transcendent, present or absent; whether I have called upon you or have yet to do so in the constantly-passing passage of time!  I plead before you for your support for all the tasks I have yet to do, just as I plead before the Almighty for your well-being and power and grace.  My praise, thanks, and honor go to you, your words, your guidance, your actions, and your support to me in my life and in my Work.

My honor and gratitude to Hermes: blessed god, powerful god, splendid god, mighty god; god of travelers, roads, passages, and tricks; god of guides and guide of gods, men spirits, souls, and heroes.  Grant that I may always praise, rejoice, and celebrate you, that all the people of all the world, regardless of language, origin, age, or habit may come to honor, glorify, and praise you to sing your songs, dance your dances, and carry out your work for you in the cosmos.  It is because of you I stepped forth on the path that led me where I am today, and it is always with you in one form or another, by one name or another, wearing one mask or another, that I always shall travel to my ultimate and final destination.  Your hand opens the door for me; your wand points the way for me; your presence protects my own at all crossroads, both of the land and of the mind.  Before all others in time and thought, you are my patron among the theos; watch over me, and keep me far and safe from all pain, plague, poison, illness, injury, infirmity, death, disease, defilement, all harm and all misfortune and all witchcraft, wheresoever I may go.

May all that has happened before continue to teach, guide, instruct, and fortify me as I continue into the future.  May old pacts be renewed, alliances reinforced, works restarted, and offerings refreshed.  May I not abandon my original goals, but widen the scope of my horizons to go where I must go, know what I must know, do what I must do, and become what I must be.

Amen, amen, amen.

My honor and gratitude to my godfather and my godmother, and through them the rest of my godfamily, who have welcomed me as one of their own, despite all barriers and overcoming all obstacles.  Far more than any teacher, far more than any colleague, far more than any friend have my godparents stood up for me; by the hands, heart, and breath of my godfather has power, privilege, and divine right been passed onto me, and by the care, awareness, and perseverance of my godmother have I been empowered and protected.  The presence and power of the divine is now carried by my soul and body in ways subtle and mysterious, which I could never have known were it not for the grace and lenience of my godparents, just as it was passed onto them through their godparents, and through all the lineage into the distant reaches of time.  May I grow tall, strong, and prosperous under your tutelage; may I never dishonor, disgrace, or debase what you have passed onto me.  As you have granted me the grace of divinity through your right, may God grant me the grace to one day pass on what has been passed on to me in at least as good a condition as I received it, and by the grace of God, better than anyone could have hoped for.

As the days grow shorter and the leaves grow golden, the Sun leaves its station where I was born in flesh nigh three decades ago, and it retakes for the first time its station where I was born in spirit.  One year ago, I embarked on the spiritual endeavor of the iyaworaje of La Regla de Ocha Lukumí, and with the sunrise of this morning, it has concluded.

Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the divinities of all the realms, who preside over all the elements of creation created by the Creator Almighty.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Diviner Priest of the Divine, the impartial witness of fate, the solemn scribe of destiny.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Trickster of the Crossroads, the living paradox, the critical instigator.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Silent Hunter of Prey and Criminals, tracking the paths of justice and righteousness.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Old Mountain King in White, covering the world in peace, purity, and wisdom.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Clever Queen, Warrior of the Winds, the gatekeeper of transitions and metamorphosis.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Charitable Lady of the Sweet Waters, letting flow freely the finest luxuries of life.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Mother Empress of the Ocean, the reason our tears and sweat are salty like her seas.
Honor, gratitude, praise, and power to the Fulminous Lord of Drums and Thunder, bestowing unto us the divine right of royalty.

All my honor, gratitude, praise, power, and total respect to the Blacksmith Warrior, the intelligent begetter of civilization and technology, the master of all tools, the one who cuts for life and death, the one who pierces for healing and killing, the alchemist and metallurgist of the animate and inanimate, the first who tastes blood, the reason of the red in our blood, the spiller of blood upon the earth, the Lord Of Iron and the Lord In Iron.  Hail to you, my lord, my king, my warrior, my commander, my defender, my protector, my patron saint, my guardian angel, my god, my father, my crown.  Hail to you, each and every day of my life, for I always was and always shall be your son.  Grant me your blessing, your guidance, your wisdom, your wit, your inventiveness, your ingenuity, your strength, your courage, your constitution, your protection.

A mà là!  Ògún Ààrẹ’ré, a mà là e a!  A fẹ́’re yọ̀, a fẹ́’re yọ̀; a fẹ́’re yọ̀, a fẹ́’re yọ̀!

Maferefun Ògún.  Modupé Ògún.

Ashé, ashé, ashé.


(No, dear reader, I’m not gonna stop posting about Hermetic, PGM, geomantic, or other occult stuff.  That will still be the focus of my blog, as it always was; don’t worry, no need for concern.  And yes, this does mean that in the near future I’ll be opening up for divination and other services.)

Generating Geomantic Figures

After my fantastic and entertaining chat with Gordon on his Rune Soup podcast, and in tandem with the good Dr Al’s course on the fundamentals and history of the art, there’s been a huge influx of interest in geomancy, to which I say “about goddamned time”.  As my readers (both long-term and newly-come) know, I’m somewhat of a proponent of geomancy, and I enjoy writing about it; it’s flattering and humbling that my blog is referred to as a “treasure trove” of information on the art, and I consistently see that my posts and pages on geomancy are increasingly popular.  It’s also encouraging enough to get me to work more on my book, which…if I actually get off my ass and work on it like I need to and should have been doing for some time now, will probably get put to consumable paper sometime late next year.

One of the most common questions I find people asking when they first get introduced to the art of geomancy is “how do people generate the geomantic figures?”  Unlike other forms of divination, geomancy isn’t tied down to one specific means or method.  Tarot and all forms of cartomancy use cards, astrology uses the planets and stars, scrying uses some sort of medium to, well, scry; we often classify methods of divination based on the set of tools it uses, and give it an appropriately-constructed Greek term ending in -mancy.  Geomancy is different, though; truly any number of methods can be used to produce a geomantic figure, because geomancy is more about the algorithms and techniques used in interpretation rather than the tools it uses to produce a reading.  Once you get into the feel and understanding of geomancy, you can almost quite literally pull a chart out of thin air using any tools (or none at all!) at your disposal.  Still, partially because of the ability to be so free-wheeling, newcomers to geomancy are often caught up in the tool-centric way of thinking of divination, and can become (I find) overly concerned with the “best” or “most popular” method.

To that end, let me list some of the ways it’s possible to come up with a geomantic figure.  I don’t intend for this to be an exhaustive list, but more of a generalized classification of different kinds of ways you can produce a geomantic figure (or more than one in a single go):

  1. Stick and surface.  This is the oldest method, going back to the very origins of the art in the Sahara, where the geomancer takes some stylus and applies it to an inscribable medium.  You can use a staff and a patch of soil on the ground, a wand on a box of sand, a stylus on a wax (or modern electronic) tablet, a pen on paper, or some other similar mechanic.  To use this method, simply make four lines of dots, traditionally from right to left.  Don’t count the dots; let them fall naturally, so that a random number of dots are in each line.  Some people get into a trance state, chant a quick prayer, or simply focus on the query while they make the dots, if only to distract the mind enough to avoid counting the dots and influencing what comes out.  Once you have four lines, count the dots in each line; traditionally, the geomancer would cross off the dots two-by-two (again, right-to-left) until either one or two dots were left over at the end.  These final leftover dots are then “separated” out from the line to form a single figure.  To make all four figures, simply increase the number of lines from four to sixteen, and group the rows of leftover dots into consecutive, non-overlapping groups of four rows.
  2. Coins.  This is a simple, minimalist method: flip a coin four times.  Heads means one point of the resulting figure, and tails means two (or you can swap these around, if you so prefer, but I prefer heads = one point).  Flipping a coin four times gets you four rows to make a complete figure.  Alternatively, you could flip four coins at once, perhaps of different denominations: for example, you could flip a penny for the Fire line, a nickle for the Air line, a dime for the Water line, and a quarter for the Earth line; a single throw of all four coins at once gets you a complete geomantic figure.  I consider any method that uses a “flip” to produce a binary answer to fall under this method; thus, the druid sticks used by geomancers like John Michael Greer and Dr Al Cummins would technically be considered a type of geomancy-specific “coin”, as would pieces of coconut shell where the convex side on top is “up” and the concave side on top is “down”.
  3. Divining chain.  This is a slightly modified version of the coin-based method, where four coins or disks are linked together in a chain.  Rather than throwing the coins individually, the chain itself is flung, tossed, or thrown in such a way that each coin falls on a different side.  The only example I can find of this in Western-style divination is the (possibly spurious) Chain of Saint Michael, where four saint medallions are chained, one to another, and connected to a sword charm, but a corollary to this can be found in the Yoruba divination methods of Ifá, using something called the ekuele (or ekpele, or epwele, depending on whether you’re Cuban or Nigerian and how you feel like spelling it).  There, you have four pieces of cut shell that can fall mouth-up or husk-up, or four pieces of metal that fall on one of two sides; notably, the ekuele has eight coins on it so that the diviner-priest can throw two figures at a time, but that’s because of the specific method of Ifá divination, which is only a distant cousin to geomancy and shouldn’t actually be mixed with our techniques.
  4. Dice.  Again, a pretty straightforward method: roll a single die four times, or four different dice one time.  If a given die is an odd number, use a single point; if an even number, use two points.  Some people use four different-colored cubical dice (e.g. red for Fire, yellow for Air, blue for Water, green for Earth), but I prefer to use tabletop RPG dice that come in different shapes.  For this, I use the associations of the Platonic solids to the classical elements: the tetrahedron (d4) for Fire, octahedron (d8) for Air, icosahedron (d20) for Water, and cube (d6) for Earth.  Like Poke Runyon aka Fr. Therion, you could use four knucklebones for the same purpose, as each knucklebone has four sides (traditionally counted as having values 1, 3, 4, and 6).  Dice are easy, the tools fit in a tiny bag which can itself fit into a pocket, and nobody is any the wiser if you just pull some dice out and start throwing them on a street corner.
  5. Counting tokens.  This is a similar method to using dice, but a more general application of it.  Consider a bag of pebbles, beans, or other small mostly-similar objects.  Pull out a random handful, and count how many you end up with.  If the number is odd, give the corresponding row in the geomantic figure a single point; if even, two points.  This is a pretty wide and varied set of methods; you could even, as Nigel Pennick proposes, pull up four potatoes from a field and count whether each potato has an odd or even number of eyes on it.  The idea here is to use something to, again, get you a random number that you can reduce into an odd or even answer, and isn’t really different from using dice, except instead of being presented with a number, you have to count a selection of objects obtained from a collection.  In a sense, both the dice and counting token methods can be generalized as using any random-number generator; you could use something like random.org to get you four (or sixteen) random numbers, to which you simply apply the odd-even reduction; such a generator can be found using this link.
  6. Quartered drawing.  Not really a technique or toolset on its own, but a variation on things that use coins, identical dice, or other counting tokens.  In this, you prepare a surface that’s cut into four quarters, such as a square with four quadrants or a quartered circle.  Each quarter is given to one of the four elements, and thus, to one of the four rows of a geomantic figure.  Into each quarter, you’d randomly flip one of four coins or drop a random number of beans, and read the pattern that’s produced as a single figure.  This can be useful if you’re short on similar-but-not-identical tools (like only having four pennies instead of four different types of coin, or four identical dice instead of different-colored/shaped dice).
  7. Selection of numbers.  One method of geomantic generation I know is used in Arabic-style geomancy is to ask the querent for a number from 1 to 16 (or, alternatively, 0 to 15).  Arabic-style geomancy places a huge emphasis on taskīn, or specific orders of the figures which are correlated with different attributions; one such taskīn, the Daira-e-Abdah, simply arranges the geomantic figures numerically, using their representation as binary numbers.  From the Ilm-e-Ramal group on Facebook, here’s a presentation of this taskīn with each figure given a number from 1 through 16:
    Personally, I use a different binary order for the figures (reading the Earth line as having binary value 1, Water as binary value 2, Air as binary value 4, and Fire as binary value 8), where Populus = 0 (or 16), Tristitia = 1, Albus = 2, and so forth, but the idea is the same.  To use this method, simply get four random numbers from 1 to 16 or (0 to 15), and find the corresponding figure in the binary order of the figures.  You could ask for larger numbers, of course; if a number is greater than 16 (or 15), divide the number by 16 and take the remainder.  You could use dice to produce these numbers, or just ask the querent (hopefully ignorant of the binary order used!) for a number.  In fact, you’re not bound by binary ordering of the figures; any ordering you like (planetary, elemental, zodiacal, etc.) can be used, so long as you keep it consistent and can associate the figures with a number from 1 to 16 (or 0 to 15).
  8. Playing cards.  A standard deck of 52 playing cards can be used for geomantic divination, too, and can give that sort of “gypsy aesthetic” some people like.  More than just playing 52-Pickup and seeing whether any four given cards fall face-up or face-down to treat cards as coins, you can draw four cards and look at different qualities of the cards to get a different figure.  For instance, are the cards red or black, odd or even, pip or face?  With four cards, you can make a single figure; with 16, you can make four Mothers.  Better than that, you can use all the different qualities of any given card of a deck to generate a single figure, making the process much more efficient; I’ve written about that recently at this post, which you should totally read if you’re interested.  What’s nice about this method is that you can also use Tarot cards for the same purpose, and some innovators might come up with geomancy-specific spreads of Tarot that can combine the meanings of the Tarot cards that fall with the geomantic figures they simultaneously form, producing a hybrid system that could theoretically be super involved and detailed.
  9. Geomantic tokens.  Some geomancers have tools that directly incorporate the figures, so instead of constructing a figure a line at a time like with coins or beans, a whole figure is just produced on its own.  Consider a collection of 16 tokens, like a bag of 16 semiprecious stones (like what the Astrogem Geomancy people use), or a set of 16 wooden discs, where each token has a distinct figure inscribed on each.  Reach into the bag, pull out a figure; easy as that.  If you use a bag of 16 tokens and are drawing multiple figures at once, like four Mothers, you’ll need to draw with replacement, where you put the drawn token back into the bag and give it a good shake before drawing the next.  Alternatively, if you wanted to draw without replacement, you’ll need a collection of 64 tokens where each figure is given four tokens each, such as a deck of cards where a single figure is printed onto four cards.

As for me?  When I was first starting out, I used the pen-and-paper method (or stick-and-surface method, to be more general).  This was mostly to do a sort of “kinetic meditation” to get me into the mode and feel of geomancy, going back to its origins as close as I could without being a Bedouin wise-man in the wastes of the Sahara.  After that, I made a 64-card deck of geomancy cards, with each figure having four cards.  I’d shuffle the deck, cut it into fourths from right to left, and flip the top card of each stack to form the Mothers.  For doing readings for other people in person, like at a bookstore or psychic faire, I’ll still use this; even if geomancy isn’t familiar to people, “reading cards” is, so it helps them feel more comfortable giving them a medium they’re already familiar with.  Plus, I also can get the querent’s active involvement in the divination process by having them be the ones to cut the deck after I’ve shuffled; I’ll still flip the top card, but I find having them cut the deck gives them a meaningful inclusion into the process.  Generally, though, I use tabletop RPG dice for the Platonic solids.  I roll the dice and see whether each die is odd or even for a single figure, so four throws of dice get me four Mothers.  Nowadays, I only use the stick-and-surface method if I have truly nothing else at hand, because I find the process to be slow and messy, but it still works, and I can still rely on my own familiarity with it so that it doesn’t trip me up when I have to use it.

What would I suggest for newcomers to the art?  Like me, I’d recommend new geomancers to start with the stick-and-surface method, if only to develop an intimacy with the underlying, traditional method that produced all the others.  In a sense, doing this first is like a kind of initiation, practicing the same fundamental technique as have geomancers for a thousand years, and itself can be a powerful portal into the currents of the art.  Once you have that down-pat and have gotten into the feel of the art, though, I find that the method is pretty much up to the desires and whims of the geomancer.  Anything that returns a binary answer can be used for geomancy, but for convenience, some people might prefer instead a “whole figure” type of draw.  Once you settle on a set of tools, for those who are of a more magical or ritual bent, you may want to consider consecrating or blessing them, or entrusting them to the connection and care of a divining or talking spirit, according to whatever methods you find appropriate, but this isn’t strictly necessary for the art, either.

Ultimately, the tools you use for geomancy are entirely up to you, because it’s the techniques and algorithms we use that are what truly makes the art of geomancy.  The only thing I really recommend is that the geomancer takes an active role in divinely manipulating the tools used to produce the figures.

How about you, dear reader?  What methods do you use for geomantic generation?  Have you heard of any that aren’t on the list above, or aren’t included in any of the above classifications?  What are you most comfortable with?  What methods do you dislike, either on a practical or theoretical level?  What would you recommend?